My Organic Chemistry


Name: Alcohol (also known was ethanol)

structure:

aocohol.png 180px-Alcohol_general.svg.png

How it is made:

Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is made through a process called fermentation. During fermentation, yeast breaks sugar down into ethanol and carbon dioxide. This process is done without any air present, and once complete, the carbon dioxide gas bubbles out into the air leaving ethanol and water behind. Distilled spirits, such as vodka, rum, gin, and whiskey, are fermented and then distilled to separate the ethanol from the water.Various sources of sugar are used in these processes resulting in different forms of alcohol. The sugar from crushed grapes is used to make wine; malted barley is used to make beer; sugar cane or molasses makes rum; grain, potatoes, beets, molasses, and a variety of other plants are used to make vodka.The technique used to make the beverage will determine the alcohol content. You will see the percentage of alcohol per volume listed on the bottle, as well as the proof of the drink. The proof of a beverage is twice the alcohol content, so a drink with 12% alcohol per volume is 24 proof. Generally, a 12-ounce glass of beer, a 5-ounce glass of wine, and a 1.5-ounce shot of liquor all contain a half ounce of pure alcohol and are considered one drink.


Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is made through a process called fermentation. During fermentation, yeast breaks sugar down into ethanol and carbon dioxide. This process is done without any air present, and once complete, the carbon dioxide gas bubbles out into the air leaving ethanol and water behind. Distilled spirits, such as vodka, rum, gin, and whiskey, are fermented and then distilled to separate the ethanol from the water.Various sources of sugar are used in these processes resulting in different forms of alcohol. The sugar from crushed grapes is used to make wine; malted barley is used to make beer; sugar cane or molasses makes rum; grain, potatoes, beets, molasses, and a variety of other plants are used to make vodka.The technique used to make the beverage will determine the alcohol content. You will see the percentage of alcohol per volume listed on the bottle, as well as the proof of the drink. The proof of a beverage is twice the alcohol content, so a drink with 12% alcohol per volume is 24 proof. Generally, a 12-ounce glass of beer, a 5-ounce glass of wine, and a 1.5-ounce shot of liquor all contain a ½ ounce of pure alcohol and are considered one drink.



How it affects us:
People tend to feel better as their blood alcohol concentration(BAC) rises to about .05). That’s the first phase or part. If people drink more and their BAC rises above .055, the negative effects of drinking increases and hangovers become worse. That’s the second phase.
Blood alcohol level is affected by gender, speed of drinking, type and amount of food consumed, and some medications.
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Unless a person has developed a high tolerance for alcohol, a BAC rating of 0.20% represents very serious intoxication, and 0.35%-0.40% represents potentially fatal alcohol poisoning. The only way to reduce the blood alcohol concentration is by stop drinking and give your body time to recover,
Progressive Effects of Alcohol
BAC (%)
Behavior
Impairment
0.01–0.029
  • Average individual appears
    normal
  • Subtle effects that can be
    detected with special tests
0.03–0.059
  • Mild euphoria
  • Sense of well-being
  • Relaxation
  • Joyousness
  • Talkativeness
  • Decreased inhibition
  • Alertness
  • Judgment
  • Coordination
  • Concentration
0.06–0.10
  • Blunted Feelings
  • Disinhibition
  • Extroversion
  • Lowered Libido
  • Reasoning
  • Depth Perception
  • Peripheral Vision
  • Glare Recovery
0.11–0.20
  • Over-Expression
  • Emotional Swings
  • Angriness or Sadness
  • Boisterousness
  • Reflexes
  • Reaction Time
  • Gross Motor Control
  • Staggering
  • Slurred Speech
0.21–0.29
  • Stupor
  • Loss of Understanding
  • Impaired Sensations
  • Severe Motor Impairment
  • Loss of Consciousness
  • Memory Blackout
0.30–0.39
  • Severe CNS Depression
  • Unconsciousness
  • Death Possible
  • Bladder Function
  • Breathing
  • Heart Rate
≥0.40
  • General lack of behavior
  • Unconsciousness
  • Death
  • Breathing
  • Heart Rate
  • Life

Your liver metabolizes alcohol, but when you drink too much, the alcohol (a toxin) affects your adrenals, kidneys, liver, stomach and small intestines.
Effects of Alcohol
-A person under the influence of alcohol may have slurred speech, poor motor coordination, and an unsteady appearance.
-Alcohol at high doses may lead to loss of consciousness, coma (chances of possible brain damage), and death from respiratory shut down.
-Alcohol consumed with other central nervous system (CNS) depressants (narcotics, sedatives, and tranquilizers) may have a synergistic effect. In other words, drugs react with alcohol creating a stronger effect than when each is consumed separately.
-Dehydration - cause of the hangover.
-Increased blood flow through capillaries.
-Decrease in body temperature.
-Depression of many organs and functions of the body including the central nervous system.
-Anesthesia.
-Stomach irritation.
-Individuals may have gray outs (not being able to remember parts of the evening until someone reminds them) or blackouts (not being able to remember events of the night due to one's brain cells going to sleep).
-Electrolyte imbalances
-Gastrointestinal distress
-Difficulty sleeping
-Hormone imbalances

Long Term Effects
-Addiction
-Liver disease
-Problems in digestive systems
-Cardiovascular disease
-Reproductive problems
-Risk of mouth, throat, and esophageal cancer is 6 times greater for smokers and 38 times greater for smokers and drinkers
-Brain cells die after continuous use of alcohol
-Depression
-Obesity
-Hepatitis
-Cirrhosis
-Candidiasis
-B vitamin deficiency
-Severe mineral deficiency
-Loss of muscle tone
-Grey hair
-Sagging skin
-Early aging

Signs of Alcohol Poisoning
-Repeated vomiting
-Fewer than 12 breaths per minute
-Cold, clammy skin
-Unresponsiveness


Interesting facts:

-Hangover in other languages.
-The French call it ‘wood mouth’
-Germans refer to it as ‘wailing of the cats’
-Italians call it ‘out of tune’
-Malaysians call it ‘lo’
-Norwegians identify it as ‘carpenters in the head’
-Spaniards call it ‘backlash’
-Swedes refer to it as ‘pain in the hair roots

Funny anti-hangover methods.
-Ancient Greeks ate cabbages
-Ancient Romans ate fried canaries.
-Some present day Germans eat a breakfast of red meat and bananas.
-Some French drink strong coffee with salt.
-Some Chinese drink spinach tea.
-Some Puerto Ricans rub half a lemon under their drinking arm.
-Some Haitians stick 13 black-headed needles into the cork of the bottle from which they drank
-Some Russians drink vodka in an effort to cure hangovers.
-None of the above ‘cures’ is effective!
-10% of men and 3% of women struggle with alcohol dependency.
-3.6% of cancer cases worldwide are alcohol related.
-All 13 minerals necessary for human life can be found in alcohol beverages.
-The word "toast," meaning a wish of good health, started in ancient Rome, where a piece of toasted bread was dropped into wine.
-Vikings used the skulls of their enemies as drinking vessels.


Bibliography:

http://kidshealth.org/teen/drug_alcohol/alcohol/alcohol.html
http://www.medicinenet.com/alcohol_and_nutrition/article.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_alcohol_content#Effects_at_different_levels
http://www.bodyecology.com/07/07/19/recover_from_alcohol.php
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcohol
http://www2.potsdam.edu/hansondj/funfacts/index.html
http://hubpages.com/hub/Interesting-facts-about-Alcohol



BY: DEREK BANG
BLOCK: C