CELLULOSE
By: Chloe Van, Block D, June, 4th 2010 Cellulose, with the formula [(C6H10O5)n where n= repeating units] is an organic compound which consists of a linear chain made up from 'several hundred to over ten thousand β(1→4) linked D-glucose units'’[1] or in simpler terms, it is made of repeated units of the monomer glucose.[2]glucose.gif This is the same glucose your body metabolizes in order to live, but you can't digest it in the form of cellulose. Because cellulose is built out of a sugar monomer, it is called a polysaccharide.'[3] It is the most common organic compound found on earth, created by both plants and animals. 'About 33% of all plant mater is cellulose (the cellulose content of cotton is 90% and that of wood is 40-50%)'[4] although usually considered a plant material, it can also be produced by some bacteria. Cellulose is a major component in many things we use everyday such as paper and textiles such as cotton and linen. Cellulose was discovered by a French chemist, Anselme Payen, in 1830 who 'isolated it from plant matter and determined its chemical formula. It was first used to produce the first successful thermoplastic polymer, celluloid, by Hyatt Manufacturing Company in 1870.'[[5] Later, in 1920, Hermann Staudinger came up with the polymer structure of cellulose. 'The compound was first chemically synthesized (without the use of any biologically-derived enzymes) in 1992, by Kobayashi and Shoda.'[6][comment] Ms. Kim, this is supposed to be a line down, but it won't go down by pressing enter, so i'm going to type this sentence and push it down. The Structure of Cellulose [7] [22]
structureofcellulose.gif







CHARACTERISTICS
[23]
  • · No taste
    cellulose.jpg
    Scanning electron micrograph of wood cellulose
  • · Odourless
  • · Insoluble in water
  • · Biodegradable
  • · Can be broken down chemically into it’s glucose units but treating it with concentrated acids at high temperatures









HOW IS CELLULOSE MADE?
Plants are able to make their own carbohydrates that they use for energy to build their cell walls. The simplest and most common carbohydrates in a plant is glucose. Plants make glucose by using photosynthesis, which is used for energy or stored as starch for later use. ‘A plant uses glucose to make cellulose when it links many simple units of glucose together to form long chainscotton.jpg. These long chains are called polysaccharides (meaning "many sugars")’[8], and they form very long molecules that plants use to build their walls.Since these molecules are made of long chains, it becomes insoluble, it does not dissolve in water easily.'These long molecules also are formed into a criss-cross mesh that gives strength and shape to the cell wall’ [9], however not all energy and food made from photosynthesis is put towards making cellulose, most is used as fuel and some is stored, then the remaining is turned into cellulose that goes towards the main building material for the plant. Cellulose is ideal as a structural material since its fibers give strength and toughness to a plant's leaves, roots, and stems. ‘Cotton is the purest natural form of cellulose, in the laboratory ashless filter paper is a source of nearly pure cellulose.’[[10] Cellulose ethers are made when using different types of alkylating agents (exampe: Lacrisert). Some bacteria's can create their own cellulose, example being Acetobacter Xylinum.[comment] On[24]
How i^ How cellulose Insulation is madehhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhggggggggggggggggggggggggghhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh
HOW DOES CELLULOSE AFFECT US? (WHAT IS IT USED FOR?) Cellulose can be found in both manmade and natural occurring substances and objects. Without cellulose, many of our plants would not be the way they are which would affect the very nature of the cycle of life, and not just the life cycle of plants; it will conflict with animals (such as bees, all pollen dependent insects ) and therefore the human life style. Cellulose is used in a huge range of materials we use every day, and without cellulose many of these every day things would cease to exist. Below are a number of important things consisting of cellulose.In plants it is used to add stability and support to the leaves, stem and other parts of the plant. ‘Cellulose fiber cannot be used as an energy source in most animals but it is a fiber [24] essential in the diet because it helps exercise the digestive track and keep it clean and healthy. ’[11] It is a major part in the manufacturing of textiles such as cotton, linen, paper (cellulose is a huge and major part of wood, which is responsible for making it as strong as it is), paperboard and cardstock. It can be converted into cellophane, which is the thin transparent film that is made in many different colors, ‘and into rayon, which is an important fiber that has been used in textiles since the beginning of the 20th century.It also is a raw material to manufacture nitrocellulose also known as cellulose nitrate, which was historically used in smokeless gunpowder and as the base material for celluloid (the first plastic) [12] which was used for photographic and movie films until the mid 1930’s. It is used to make methyl cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose which are used in wallpaper paste.Microcrystalline cellulose (E460i) and powdered cellulose (E460ii) are used as inactive fillers in tablets and as thickeners and stabilizers in processed foods.’[13] (see an example in ‘interesting facts’) ‘Cellulose is further used to make hydrophilic and highly absorbent sponges.’[[14] A popular environmentally friendly alternative for building insulationis cellulose insulation made from recycled paper and ‘it can be treated with boric acid as a fire retardant.’[15] Cellulose can be found in species of industrial hemp, switchgrass, willow (salix) and populus.hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhwood.jpg[25] Cellophane_Paper.jpg[26]nitro.gif[27]paper.jpg[28]
Wood, Cellophane, Nitrocellulose, Paper
HOW CELLULOSE HARMS US

Cellulose is rarely harmful to us, only cellulose acetate is minimally threatening. It is found in the cigarette filters which can damage the lungs when the smoke is inhaled directly.

INTERESTING FACTS
  • Some animals, such as cows and termites, contain bacteria in their digestive tract that help them to digest cellulose’[16]
  • 'Some bacteria can convert cellulose into ethanol which can then be used as a fuels and bio fuels, [ex: cellulosic ethanol (possible future bio fuel)] [17]
  • 'Cellulose powder (an example of cellulose used as thickeners and stabilizers) is used in Kraft Parmesan Cheese to [29] prevent caking inside the tube.’[18]
  • 'Cellulose insulation is an environmentally preferable product because of its recycled content, and potentially higher energy and acoustic performance’[19]
  • Rayon, a textile made from cellulose among other components, was first sold in the United States named as "artificial silk." ‘But manufacturers thought the word "artificial" would not appeal to consumers. So they held a contest with a $1,000 prize to choose a better name for the fabric. More than 10,000 names were suggested, but the committee appointed to choose a winner rejected all of the names. Finally, a member of the committee suggested the word rayon, French for "a ray of light."’[20]


FOOTNOTES [1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellulose
[2] http://pslc.ws/macrog/cell.htm

[3] http://www.scienceclarified.com/Ca-Ch/Cellulose.html
[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellulose

[5] http://www.scienceclarified.com/Ca-Ch/Cellulose.html
[6] http://www.scienceclarified.com/Ca-Ch/Cellulose.html

[7] ttp:
webspace.ship.edu/gspaul/animal%20behavior/cockroach/cellulose.gif
[8] http://www.scienceclarified.com/Ca-Ch/Cellulose.html

[9] http://www.scienceclarified.com/Ca-Ch/Cellulose.html
[10] http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/consumer/faq/what-is-cellulose.shtml
[11] http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php?mid=61
[12] http://answers.encyclopedia.com/question/things-made-cellulose-118275.html

[13] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellulose#Commercial_products
[14] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellulose#Commercial_products

[15] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellulose#Commercial_products
[16] http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php?mid=61

[17] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellulose#Commercial_products
[18] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellulose#Commercial_products

[19] http://www.maritimeinsulators.com/id69.html
[20]http://www.bookrags.com/research/cellulose-xanthate-chmc/
[21]http://pslc.ws/macrog/images/glucose.gif
[22]
http://webspace.ship.edu/gspaul/animal%20behavior/cockroach/cellulose.gif
[23]http://www.scienceclarified.com/Ca-Ch/Cellulose.html
[24]http://www.djc.com/blogs/BuildingGreen/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/cotton-plant.jpg
[25] http://www.buildingconservation.com/articles/wood/wood.jpg
[26] http://img.alibaba.com/photo/51633633/Cellophane_Paper.jpg
[27] http://www.easybizchina.com/picture/product/newpic/alice1110_DF5EC50DA416997E.gif
[28] http://www.brodeur.com/openblog/wp-content/uploads/paper-pile-lg.jpg
[29]http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_5L213Ip_Dg4/SPK6bb-tnWI/AAAAAAAABdc/AoPJOuRWYBM/s400/kraft-parmesan.gif


BIBLIOGRAPHY
American Fiber Manufacturers Association / Fiber Economics Bureau, 1997 - 2008. Fibersource <"
//http://www.fibersource.com/f-tutor/cellulose.htm#chemistry//">

Unknown, Cellulose. May, 30th 2010 <"
//http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellulose//">

Advameg Inc, Cellulose. Unknown <"
**//http://www.scienceclarified.com/Ca-Ch/Cellulose.html//**">

University of Southern Mississippi, Cellulose. 2005 <"
**//http://pslc.ws/macrog/cell.htm//**">

Senese, Fred. What is Cellulose? 1997-2010 <"
**//http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/consumer/faq/what-is-cellulose.shtml//**">

Carpi, Anthony. Carbohydrates 2003 <"
**//http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php?mid=61//**">

Chemical Compounds, 2009. Cellulose Xanthate <"
**//http://www.bookrags.com/research/cellulose-xanthate-chmc///**">

Here is the original document on Microsoft word 2007 (without pictures)